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The primary characters in the 1886 story by Robert Louis Stevenson (Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde). Jekyll was the stereotypical member of the middle class - repressed and moralistic. Through the ingestion of a drug Dr. Jekyll becomes his mirror opposite - vital, egocentric, a sexual predator and ferocious. While expressing a Christian dichotomy between good and evil the two characters are also seen as expressing the conflict within the self between ‘ego’ and ‘id’ as well as the conflict between ‘culture’ and ‘nature’.

Refers to broad moral precepts associated with the Jewish and Christian religions. Among these are the idea of responsibility for one's own actions and of redemption of the criminal or sinner through just punishment and repentance.

Originally associated with Freud, Karl Jung developed a distinctive tradition within psychoanalysis, known as analytical psychology, that focused on the idea that all humans share in a collective unconscious mind that is exhibited in the classic forms - or archetypes- of different cultures and in the thoughts, experiences and behaviour of individuals.

The legal concept that corporations are liable to the same laws as ‘natural persons’. Treating corporations as individuals raises practical difficulties for legal enforcement and punishment.

: First enacted in 1908, and replaced by the Young Offenders Act in 1984, the JDA provided a welfare response to youthful delinquents. The Act was guided by the principle of attending to the best interests of the child and had the power to declare youths to be in a state of delinquency for violating the criminal code of Canada as well as a host of provincial or municipal statutes and bylaws. Certain behaviours such as incorrigibility, sexual promiscuity, and truancy could also be declared delinquent. Legal challenges to the Act in the 1960's questioned its constitutionality (asserting that it was welfare legislation rather than criminal legislation and thus touching on provincial jurisdictions) but these were unsuccessful and the Act was declared to be criminal legislation. Changes to the Act were initiated in the 1960's but a successful compromise was not found until 1984 after many of its provisions were found to be in violation of the Charter of Rights and Freedoms (introduced in 1982). See: STATUS OFFENCE / ULTRA VIRES / .

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Athabaca University ICAAP

© Robert Drislane, Ph.D. and Gary Parkinson, Ph.D.
The online version of this dictionary is a product of
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*This social science dictionary has 1000
entries covering the disciplines of sociology, criminology, political
science and women's study with a commitment to Canadian examples and
events and names